Who Were The Israelites?
by Brian Desborough

The following is an abridged excerpt from an unpublished book manuscript written by Brian Desborough. Biblical history, in the form it has been presented to us, is not an accurate depiction of Middle Eastern antiquity, but is largely a synthetic creation by biblical scholars whose interpretations of ancient events are often influenced by their own ideologies, and those of their academic overlords.

As an example, we have to look no further than the claim made by countless scholars that Qumran was the site of a monastery, occupied by Essenes diligently writing their scrolls. Such a claim is ludicrous when we consider that the Essenes were "zealous for the Law". Why then, would the Essenes violate their sacred Law by residing at Qumran, adjacent to latrines and a large cemetery not to mention a lack of water acceptable for ritual bathing? If the Dead Sea Scrolls were intended for posterity why were so many of them mutilated by slashing or burning at one end, and how do we explain the absence of calcium carbonate in the cisterns used for laundry purposes? And what were ancient perfume bottles doing in a monastery? (1)

The notion that Qumran was an Essene monastery was promoted by Father Roland de Vaux, who supervised The Qumran research until his death in 1971. As a Dominican priest, he was well acquainted with monasticism, and this presumably contributed to his myopic view that Qumran had been a monastery, despite archaeological evidence to the contrary. An in-depth analysis of the Qumran site is presented in the author's book manuscript.

What we perceive as biblical and more recent history, is largely propaganda disseminated in order to legitimize the actions of the victors of bloody conflicts or coups. The vilification of King Richard III stems primarily from the pen of Sir Thomas More, who conveys the impression that he was a contemporary of Richard. In actuality, he was less than six years old at the time of Richard's death. His writings were an attempt to legitimize the usurpation of the throne by the Tudors. This vilification was extended in the Shakespearean play in which the hapless monarch is portrayed as a hunchback with a withered arm. This inaccurate portrayal was perpetrated because in that era, it was popularly believed that a deformed person was evil

During the past century, archaeological excavations in The Holy Land have revealed a more realistic portrayal of life in ancient Israel than that presented by successive generations of theologians, who have elected to obfuscate the true patterns of the past in order to elevate their own importance in the overall scheme of things.

A great deal of innocent blood has been spilled in recent years in defense of Israeli claims that Israel belongs to the Jews by virtue of divine right, as depicted in the Old Testament. Does it not behoove us, therefore, to ascertain whether or not the Old Testament is accurate in this matter? (2)

The theocratic institution of Judaism has exerted a major geopolitical, spiritual and occult influence upon humankind, in part because it modified and popularized the Cabala and the infamous Babylonian Talmud.(3) It is important to remember, dear reader, that the Old Testament was not written until after the end of the Babylonian captivity period, which means that many events were not committed to writing until several centuries had elapsed. This is why claims such as the Israelite occupation of Canaan by means of conquest, as described in the Book of Joshua, lack credibility; in fact, it we delve deeply into the patterns of the past, it would appear that the genocidal activities of the psychopathic Joshua and Moses, as depicted in the Bible, never occurred.

Although the Bible displays many inaccuracies, therefore invalidating any pretence to being a divinely-inspired work, we should not ignore the Bible as a historical source, for it contains many nuggets of historical truth: it therefore behooves us not to throw the baby out with the bathwater.

According to the Old Testament, the patriarch Abraham led his band of proto-Israelites from the Mesopotamian city of Haran, to the land of Canaan. Several generations later, starvation forced the tribe to migrate to the land of Goshen. Goshen was an exceedingly fertile region located in the Nile Delta, where the Israelites coexisted peaceably with the Egyptians for a period of 430 years, before being forced to flee, in order to escape enslavement ordered by a new monarch.

In attempting to reconstruct the historical origins of the Israelites and their religion, it is well to note that Judaism as we know it today, is derived from a rabbinic system only dating back to the second century of the present era. It is claimed to be a continuation of Pharisaic teachings which were formulated during the aftermath of the Maccabean revolt (168-164 B.C.).

Archaeological evidence is indicative that Judaism, during its formative period, assimilated cultic beliefs acquired from neighboring peoples, and is, therefore, not the uniquely original religion that religious purists would have us believe.

In ancient times, the manner in which a civilization evolved was largely determined by the nature of the local terrain and environment. Thus, the great civilizations of antiquity, such as those of Egypt and the Indus Valley, all possessed navigable rivers, replete with very wide flood plains that provided the basis for extensive agriculture. Egypt is typical of a nation which evolved as an hydraulic civilization; each year between August and November, the level of the mighty Nile used to rise some 15 to 25 feet above normal, resulting in a floodplain up to seven miles in width. When the floodwaters receded, rich, fertile silt was deposited, which was then planted with barley, flax and wheat (conditions have changed since the construction of the Aswan Dam).

The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers similarly enabled the inhabitants of Mesopotamia to develop an hydraulic civilization) particularly since the Mesopotamian Valley is even wider than the corresponding Nile Valley. With the passage of time, a complex network of canals and dikes were built, in order to control the distribution of floodwaters. These in turn required the establishment of a centralized government, in order to provide effective water management.

Possession of a navigable river which provides easy transportation, also enabled such nations to develop national tax collection and military intelligence systems, which in turn facilitated the creation of large armies. Conversely, countries lacking in navigable rivers, were dependent upon rainfall-based agricultural economies. These tended to foster the establishment of city-states instead of nations.

In perusing the Bible, one is given the impression that the River Jordan is a geographical feature of major importance, particularly in view of the fact that it is mentioned no fewer than 196 times! In actuality, the Jordan is little more than a wide stream, and the appellation "river" (nhr) is never assigned to it in the scriptures.

Located in the Great Rift Valley - a massive rupture of the earth's crust extending from Turkey to North Africa, the Jordan, fed by melting snows, rises in the foothills of lofty Mount Hermon, which is situated at the boundary between Israel and Syria. (4) It plunges through a narrow gorge before entering the Sea of Galilee, some 25 miles to the south. Exiting Galilee, the river placidly meanders a sinuous path before discharging into the Dead Sea, for an overall distance of 90 miles, as the crow flies, which pales in comparison with the more than 4000 mile length of the Nile.

Unlike the Nile, the floor of the Jordan Valley is devoid of vegetation, except for an almost impenetrable thicket of poplars, tamarisks and thorn bushes lining the river banks. To make matters worse, the Jordan floods in the spring, which is harvest time in the arid Middle East. In consequence, the Jordan was incapable of sustaining an agricultural economy during the biblical era; this is why the geopolitical structure of Canaan developed in the form of independent city-states, devoid of a unifying central government.

Despite being independently ruled, the Cities of Canaan during the Bronze Age (which was superceded by the Iron Age circa 1200 B.C.) developed an integrated trading system which dealt in spices, gold, bronze implements and agricultural produce. Even the farmers and nomadic pastoralists appear to have entered into a symbiotic relationship, wherein the sheep and goats of the nomadic tribes grazed and fertilized the farmland, following the harvest.

Perhaps this is an opportune time to pause in our narrative, to inquire of ourselves exactly how the art of copper and bronze smelting evolved. The popular belief that it originated by chance when a campfire was built over an exposed ore deposit is clearly fallacious; it is not possible to attain the requisite smelting temperature (1200 degrees Centigrade) by means of a campfire. Moreover, copper-smelting is a 'very complex technology since little copper occurs in its native (metallic) form. Accordingly, the commonly-found copper ores, such as azurite or malachite, have to undergo a reduction process in order to obtain metallic copper from them.

A clearer perspective of the problem is, perhaps presented, if we imagine that the populace of a modern city suddenly found themselves transported back to the pre-Bronze Age. Among them would probably be a few metallurgists capable of smelting ore, if they had access to a suitable furnace and appropriate fluxes, but how many of them would recognize copper ore if they saw it, and how many would possess the degree of prospecting expertise to locate a substantial ore body in the first place?

Since it is highly improbable that early copper smelters had stumbled upon such a complex process accidentally, it is quite likely that the process was reintroduced by high-tech survivors of the global flood.

It was the development of smelting that provided the impetus for the growth of international trade between the hierarchical nations during the Bronze Age. Thus, Egypt, rich in gold, but lacking a local source of silver ore, established a maritime trade with the silver-smelting cities of the Aegean region.

Until the present century, archaeologists believed that the European bronze industry was developed by Mycenean prospectors searching for new ore bodies; this belief was dashed in 1907, when four laborers began digging a drainage ditch in the Carpathian Basin - a region where the countries of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania meet at the headwaters of the Tisza river.

Approximately two feet beneath the surface of the sandy soil, the laborers discovered a hoard of bronze weaponry, consisting of a sword and twelve battle axes. That these weapons had been buried as part of a formal offering to a deity, and not hastily abandoned during the heat of battle, was evident from the fact that the sword was aligned north-south, and the axes were laid across it with their blades facing toward the west.

The weapons were richly decorated with the curvilinear scrollwork normally associated with Celtic and Mycenean jewelry. Bronze artifacts and fragments of the molds in which they were cast, discovered in the same region several decades later, are demonstrative that they were the products of a local bronze industry, not Mycenean imports. These artifacts, produced by a group known as the Otomani, were, in fact, manufactured prior to the Celtic and Mycenean periods.

The Otomani, with their substantial fortresses, chariots and cultic centers, such as the one at Salacea, in Romania, appear to have established a commonwealth, governed by an oligarchical hierarchy. A striking parallel exists between the cultures of the Otomani people and the Celts: curvilinear decoration, ritual dedication of expensive artifacts and a commonwealth type of government, all of which suggests that the Otomani were the precursors of the Celtic civilization of temperate Europe, which developed more than a millenium later.

The Otomani established an initial trading route to Scandinavia, prior to focussing their marketing expertise on the Aegean area, with particular emphasis upon Mycenea. Bronze artifacts bearing the curvilinear decorative style of the Carpathian Basin have been unearthed at Mycenea, while a Mycenean lathe-turned gold cup, circa 1600 B.C., was discovered in Romania.

In all probability, it was the unique geographical location of Mycenea, enabling it to control the maritime trade routes through the Gulf of Corinth to the North (to Italy and the Black Sea region) and through the Gulf of Argus to the south (to Crete, Canaan and Egypt) that permitted Mycenea to function as middleman in this widespread trading network. This allowed Mycenea to evolve into a prosperous city-state and a leader in the establishment of Greece as a political power center.

We appear to be getting off the subject of the proto-Israelites, but one of the southern trading routes of the Otomani during the period 2000-1500 B.C., terminated at the Black Sea, where it intersected with an eastern Mycenean route established for the purpose of trade with Mesopotamia. This was during the period in which the patriarch Abraham resided at the city of Haran, in the kingdom of Mari.

Located between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, Haran in the era of Abraham (which is believed by most biblical scholars to be 1800 - 1900 B.C.) was the seat of the Mari government; it was also one of the great wonders of its day, primarily due to the gigantic dimensions and splendor of its palace. This was sufficiently large to accommodate the entire administrative staff of the monarch.

The almost 24,000 texts unearthed at Mari reveal that the nation worshipped 24 deities and possessed a superb administrative system. Of masonic interest is the textual discovery that some 2000 of the nation's craftspeople were members of guilds.

Some of the texts cautioned about the necessity of protecting their farmlands from incursions by Semitic nomadic pastoralists and their herds, who disturbed the peaceful lives of the Mari populace, whose principal interests appeared to be commerce and religion

Thanks to the sterling efforts of archaeologists such as Professor Parrot of Paris, Mari has revealed itself to us as a kingdom of considerable sophistication. It is highly unlikely, therefore, that Abraham was an itinerant pastoralist as the Bible would have us believe, particularly since he employed servants; this implies that he was a man of means.(5)

A disturbing parallel exists between events occurring in the lives of Abraham and his kinfolk and the laws of the kingdom of Mittani - a nation-state sharing the northern border of the kingdom of Mari. According to texts discovered at Nuzi, a Mittani city located near the present-day Kirkut ollfield in Iraq, a childless couple could legally arrange for a surrogate mother to provide an heir. The Bible states that Abraham's wife Sarah, being barren, procured the services of Hagar to fulfill this role.(6) In a similar manner, Jacob's wife Rachel, arranged for her maid Bilhah to be a surrogate mother.(7) Mittani law also awarded inheritance rights to a person who possessed statues (teraphim) of the deceased; we are told that Rachel stole the teraphim of her father Laban.(8)

The Nuzi texts were written circa 1500 B.C., in other words, some four centuries after the purported time of Abraham. This suggests that either the Mari were the precursors of the Mitanni people, or that the biblical chronology is incorrect and that Abraham was born at a later period. Abraham allegedly left Haran 645 years before the Exodus.

Be that as it may, the Mitanni nobility, known as Marya, were an Indo-Aryan warrior caste, referred to in the Bible as Horites; the Horites worshipped the Indian deities Mithra, the god of light, who was claimed to be the intermediary between the Creator and humanity, and Varuna, the god of cosmological order.

In view of the preoccupation of the Marya with horses and chariots, they were probably descended from a migratory group of the previously-mentioned Otomani people of the Carpathian Basin, who not only possessed superior smelting technology, but appear to have used chariots at a much earlier period than their Middle-Eastern neighbors.

In consideration of the fact that Abraham possessed servants, he was obviously a person of influence, and quite possibly a member of the nobility. This supposition is reinforced by the fact that textual evidence claims that the Mari populace were hostile toward Semitic pastoralists. Emerging from the past, the excavated ruins are indicative that Haran was a very substantial city, even by today's standards. The image of Abraham and his kindred pastoralists dwelling in tents amidst the palaces, temples and related splendors of this majestic city of antiquity, stretches one's credulity to the limit. Either the Patriarch was a tent-dwelling nomad living in a sparsely-populated pastoral region, or an affluent city dweller, but not both, as the Bible claims.

Nearing the end of his life, Abraham, reluctant to see his son Isaac take a Canaanite for a bride, instructed his eldest servant to "go into my country, and to my kindred and take a wife unto my son Isaac... and he arose and went to Mesopotamia, unto the city of Nahor. "(9)

From this statement, we can ascertain that Abraham's original home was not Haran, or even Ur, but Nahor; moreover, it was the domicile of his relatives. Nahor was a city located in the Balikh Valley of northern Mesopotamia, in the region that later became the kingdom of Mitanni. This is of great historical importance for it suggests that Abraham was an Inda-Aryan Horite, not a Semite , as claimed by Jew and Arab alike.

We are informed in the Bible that Abraham and some of his relatives relocated in Canaan.(10) That this was not merely a visit is emphasized by the fact that they took all of their possessions with them. The 600 mile trek would have taken them down the fertile Balikh Valley to Palmyra, then via the famous caravan route that extended all the way from Mesopotamia to Egypt. Along the way they would have passed the site where Damascus, renowned for its spring blossoms, would later develop, and past the towering snow-clad peak of Mount Hermon and the hills of Galilee, before traversing the arid countryside of Canaan.

Canaan, in the era of Abraham, extended from Mount Hermon in the north, to the arid wilderness of the Negev region in the south, an overall distance of 150 miles. At its narrowest point, the width of Canaan was only 25 miles. The Canaanite aristocracy lived in small towns of only 20 acres or less in area; these were heavily fortified with massive walls for protection against marauding Bedouin tribesmen.

The inevitable question arises as to why Abraham would leave the sophisticated city of Haran, with all its creature comforts, and undertake a hazardous journey to a primitive country of petty city-states and hostile nomads. Even if he were an aristocrat on a diplomatic mission, he would not have taken all his worldly possessions with him.

The author therefore suggests that Abraham lived at a later time period than the 18th or 19th centuries B.C., as claimed by a consensus of biblical scholars. The most probable reasons for Abraham to undertake such an arduous journey, particularly since his wife was advanced in years, were either that his relatives were fugitives from justice, or that a major disaster had befallen the Kingdom of Mari.

Such a cataclysmic event did, indeed, occur circa 1700 B.C., when the Babylonian monarch Hammurabi conquered the kingdom of Mari, and left the magnificent city in ruins. Throughout history, it has been the custom or invading despots to massacre the hierarchy and intelligentsia of conquered nations, in order to minimize the possibility of a rebellion. Accordingly, it would be perfectly natural for the Patriarch and his relatives to flee for their lives if they were members of the Haran aristocracy, living during this later time period.

Now that we have constructed a more realistic picture of Abraham, let us rationalize why he would choose to relocate in the arid country of Canaan, instead of a more fertile region of the Middle-East. The answer to this problem may be found in Egyptian texts discovered at Tel el Amarna, in 1887. This major archaeological find comprises 377 diplomatic letters dating from the 15th century B.C., written by the rulers of Canaanite city-states. Canaan, during the second millenium B.C. was an Egyptian satrapy; amazingly, the Tel el Amarna letters bore such signatures as Prince Indaruta and Prince Suwarduta. In other words, the Canaanite cities were administered by Indo-Aryan Horites!

Interestingly, some of the correspondence dealt with attacks on Canaanite cities launched by nomadic Semitic tribes. If Abraham were a nomadic Semite, clearly he would not be welcome in Canaan; if, however, he was an aristocratic Indo-Aryan refugee, his presence in Canaan would not present a problem to the Horite princes.

Our only problem with this scenario is that Abraham supposedly possessed camels, according to the Bible. Camels were not domesticated until several centuries later. It is well to bear in mind, however, that early biblical history did not appear in written form until the Solomonic era at the earliest. With the passage of time, incorrect chronologies and embellishments occurred in the oral narratives. The possession of camels is almost certainly a false interpolation added to the narrative centuries later.

When his wife Sarah died, Abraham purchased a burial site in Hebron from some Hittites.(11) Again we are faced with a problem if the event occurred in the 19th century B.C., as claimed by many biblical scholars, for the Hittite kingdom had not been established at that time period. The Hittites were in existence, however, during the 16th century, the period in which Abraham lived, according to the author's hypothesis. The term "Hittite" is a Hebrew derivation of "Khatti" - the Aryan race we know as the Phoenicians, some of whom colonized India, where they were known as Khattiyo Arrio, meaning "ruler".

Since the Hittites' immediate neighbors were Canaan and the kingdom of Mitanni, both of whom, as we have seen, were administrated by Indo-Aryans, it explains why the Hittites were able to own land in Canaan.

The Bible does not make it clear whether or not Abraham journeyed to Egypt, but there is archaeological evidence supportive of such a contention; the Bible does categorically state, however, that his trek took him to Gerar, which is located in southwestern Canaan, in the region known as the Negev.

Mention of the Negev has an immense bearing on our narrative, for it is in this region of Canaan that the genesis of the future Israelite nation occurred, according to the author's hypothesis. Not surprisingly, this hypothesis is at variance with those of many biblical scholars, who believe that the earliest Israelite domain was in the hill country of upper Galilee. In order to provide the reader with a balanced perspective, of suggested Israelite origins, it behooves us to briefly examine some of these hypotheses.

It is the consensus of contemporary biblical scholars that the Exodus, if it ever occurred at all, and the resultant bloody conquest of Canaanite cities, is an unacceptable historical construct for the dawning of the Israelite nation, since there are too many archaeological and chronological discrepancies: the destruction of individual Canaanite cities spanned too great a lime period to have been the result of Joshua's purported genocidal military campaign. An alternate model was proposed during the 1920's by the German scholars Alt and Noth, who deduced from the previously-mentioned Tel el Amarna texts that the proto-Israelites were the people known as the Apiru, whom they theorized were hostile nomadic pastoralists who eventually destroyed the Canaanite city-states. They suggested that the appellation "Hebrew" was, in fact, derived from "Apiru."

The major problem with this theory is that the Apiru were primarily troublesome renegades from affluent Canaanite and Syrian families, who hired themselves out as mercenaries; they were never pastoralists. The term "Apiru" is not linguistically associated with the term "Ibri" (Hebrew).(12)

During the 1960's, University of Michigan scholar George Mendenhall, hypothesized that Apiru mercenaries instigated a revolt by peasants, who had become unified by monotheism after fleeing from the plains to the hills. Unfortunately, there is no archaeological evidence to verify such a major demographic shift from the plains to the hills during that particular period.

The latest theory, advanced by Israel Finkelstein, of Tel Aviv University, proposes that an international recession diminished the market demand for the sheep and goats raised by the pastoralists. The economic setback accordingly forced the pastoralists to modify their lifestyle and become farmers.(13)

To be successful, a militant peasant revolt has to be well-funded and professionally directed. This was the case in the French Revolution, for example, where trained foreign mercenaries bore the brunt of the fighting, under the direction of the Illuminati. Similarly, the Angolan revolution was funded by the petroleum cartel, in order to oust small independent oil companies from the Angolan oilfields. It is unlikely that the Cuban revolution would have succeeded, had not Castro received CIA funding. There is no historical evidence that a well-funded and highly-trained peasant army ever attacked and conquered any of the heavily-fortified Cannanite cities.

For a fledgling civilization to successfully develop, it must possess a strong market economy, as was the case with the coastal cities of Canaan, where Egyptian gold and spices were traded for copper and the unique purple dye that the Canaanites obtained from the murex shellfish. The Canaanite peasants, eking out a living on their arid hill-top farms, clearly lacked the necessary product diversification to establish such a strong economy, and sustain an affluent temple-oriented priesthood.

In summation, the presently-advanced theories lack too many important facets to be tenable, which is why it is advisable to research important subjects ourselves, instead of accepting the all too often incorrect dogma of the academic mafia.

In order to develop a realistic construct for the origin of the Israelites, we must search for a clan, or closely related group of people, who possessed manufacturing as well as farming skills, and were also adept at marketing their wares. They must have lived in the southern region of Canaan, in the Negev and the surrounding hill country. They must also be acquainted with a monarchical system of government. We must also search for archaeological evidence of early Judaic temple relics, such as a brazen serpent or the remains of a tabernacle; if we can find biblical and archaeological references to such a society, we can be reasonably certain that we have discovered who were the Proto-Israelites.

Such a clan did, in fact exist during the time of Abraham: known as the Kenites. they were a clan of the Midianites - a federation of semi-nomadic clans whose territory extended from the Arabian Desert to the Negev. Unlike other Palestinian tribes who were ruled by chieftains, the Midianites possessed a monarchy which is referred to in the bible.(14) They were also called the Ishmaelites.(15) The Bible informs us that they were both shepherds and traders.(16) In addition, they were known to perform as middlemen in the gold and frankincense markets.

The Kenite branch of the Midianites were primarily metal workers, as is evidenced by their name, which is derived from the root "qvn" ,; meaning "metalsmith" in Aramaic (qvny). The Kenites probably developed their metalworking industry after they, or the Egyptians, discovered the large copper and iron deposits in the Wadi el Arabah, which is located in southern Canaan.

Being skilled in both metalworking and animal husbandry, the only missing element needed to enable the clan to become a formidable marketing entity, was a person with vision and strong leadership qualities such as Abraham. Abraham had exhibited such skills in undertaking the arduous trek to Canaan. We therefore need to seek biblical verification that Abraham knew the Midianites.

Abraham not only knew the Midianites, he married one named Keturah!(17) Kenites feature prominently in the Old Testament: Moses married the daughter of a Kenite priest, also Jethro, who purportedly aided Moses in the wilderness and introduced the cult of the brazen serpent. Enoch was also associated with the Midianites, and the house of Rechab were Kenite relatives, some of whom resided at the copper-mining center of Ge-Harashim.(18)

Some scholars hold that the Israelite deity Yahwey was originally the Kenite god Yahu. This is a most important claim, for ancient Chinese folklore states that Emperor Yahu ruled shortly after the last global flood. Unfortunately, most ancient Chinese records and classital works were destroyed by order of Emperor Tsin-Khin-Hong (246-209 B.C.). From mythologies and history that was rewritten at a later date, we are given to understand that a Chinese scholar by the name of Fu-hsi survived the flood and re-introduced the Tao (the way of the universe and nature, which begets all phenomena and creation).

Chinese folklore states that Emperor Yahu was named in memory of a terrible groaning noise which permeated the sky and sounded like the word "yahu", during the time of the flood. The writer suggests that the global deluge was caused by the earth temporarily capturing a comet, which changed the topography of the planet and resulted in the Noahic flood. The comet finally adopted a stable orbit, becoming the planet Venus.

According to Sumerian texts, the flood occurred during the reign of the Sumerian ruler King Zuisudra, who was advised to construct an ark, according to the ancient historian Sanchuniathon. The awesome groaning noise heard in the heavens during the cataclysm, was probably an enormous capacitor discharge of electricity passing between the comet and planet earth. So terrifying would the cataclysm have been to the flood survivors, that archetypal memories of the event have been handed down to the present day; the dazzlingly-bright comet with its writhing luminous tail being remembered generations later as the Morning Star, Lucifer the Light-bringer, and the plumed serpent Quetzalcoatl.

So far, we have determined that the Kenites possessed the means for establishing an international market economy strong enough for them to create a nation-state. All we have to do now is find archaeological evidence of early religious artifacts possessing Judaic characteristics, and discovered in known Kenite territory.

During the past century, many biblical scholars have expressed doubt as to whether the legendary Tabernacle of the Israelites ever existed. These doubts were refuted in 1959, when Professor Benno Rothenberg, an Israeli of German birth, discovered a Midianite shrine at a copper mine in Wadi-el Arabah, which forms part of the Great Rift Valley.

At the shrine were the remains of a tabernacle very similar to the one described in the Old Testament. Also found at the shrine was a gold-decorated brass serpent, the symbol of the Mother-Goddess Astarte, who was identified with Queen Semiramis of Babylon, according to Athenagoras.

A brazen serpent purportedly was installed in the pre-Solomonic temple at Jerusalem; other brass serpents of later date were also discovered at various shrines near Jerusalem, suggestive of the serpent's importance in early Israelite worship. According to ancient African lore, the serpent did not symbolize the planetary telluric currents, but was used as a symbol to covertly represent the shape-shifting dragons, who were known to Africans as the chitauri (the dragon overlords of the human race allegedly forbade images of themselves to be made, hence the adoption of the serpent as a symbol).

In the north-eastern sector of the Negev, at an elevation of 610 meters, and overlooking the Dead Sea, lies the modern city of Arad, which was constructed in 1961 for the production of petrochemicals and fertilizer. A few miles away, in former Kenite territory, are the remains of a fortress known to have been constructed during the Hyksos period (1730-1580 B.C.). If the author's contention that Abraham vacated Haran in 1700 B.C. is accurate, it is quite feasible that the fortress, known as Tel el Milh, was constructed after the Patriarch had made contact with the Kenites. The township appears to have been settled by the Jerameelite family.(19)

The Bible claims that the offspring of Moses settled in the vicinity of Arad, which was mentioned by Eusebius in the 4th century A.D., and is situated about 30 kilometers to the north-east of Beersheba. Tel Arad was a large Early Bronze Age city that was fortified by a massive wall replete with semi-circular towers.

This ancient city was destroyed circa 2700 B.C., and remained abandoned until the 11th century B.C., when a new settlement arose on the site. A century later, a temple was added. This temple is of extreme importance to authentic Judaic history, for it is the oldest Israelite temple yet discovered.

The general configuration of the temple closely resembled that of King Solomon's Temple. Flanking the main hall were two stone slabs, which presumably functioned as the bases for two columns, similar to the Jachin and Boaz columns of Judaic and Masonic lore, which formed an important symbolic element in Solomon's purported temple. The outer courtyard of the Tel Arad temple contained a sacrificial altar five cubits square, corresponding exactly with the dimensions of the biblical tabernacle. (20) Ink-inscribed pottery sherds (ostraca) found at the site bear the names of two biblical priestly families: Meremoth and Pashur.

Like the gradual materialization of a photographic image in a tank of developer, our investigation has finally revealed a realistic portrayal of the dawning era of the Israelite nation. All the necessary elements are there: the heavy emphasis that the Bible imparts upon the relationship between Abraham and the Kenites, the oldest known Israelite temple was located in Kenite territory, and the Kenites were adept metal workers and middlemen.

Archeological surveys indicate that numerous hamlets and towns sprang up in the previously sparsely populated hill country of Canaan, the development commencing around the time that the author believes Abraham settled in the Negev. The author surmises that the increasing affluence and political stability of the Negev region, under the leadership of Abraham, gradually attracted the attention of pastoralists known as the Shosu, who were comprised of many tribal afinities and who eventually settled in the hill country of Canaan.

If Abraham was indeed an Indo-Aryan Horite, his standing with the Indo-Aryan rulers Of the Canaanite cities would have been presumably quite high, particularly if he were an aristocratic figure, or a person of means. This would have provided him with both the political and marketing clout necessary to establish the Kenites as a formidable commercial entity. When we evaluate what we have so far gleaned of the commercial potential of the Kenites, we find a group whose industrial and agribusiness capabilities were no better than those of the Canaanite city-states. Clearly an extra element was necessary in order to transform the Kenites and assimilated pastoralists into a powerful, unified nation. The author believes that missing element to have been the Kenite development of the largest copper and iron smelting industry in the entire Middle-East.

Commencing with the extensive copper-smelting industry in the previously-mentioned Wadi-el-Arabah, which remained operational until 1200 B.C., an even larger metal smelting operation, also located in Kenite territory, was discovered in 1937 by the distinguished American archaeologist Nelson Glueck. Near the shores of the Gulf of Aqabah, Glueck unearthed the remains of the biblical city of Ezion-Geber, famed during the Solomonic era for its shipbuilding industry. Among the ruins, Glueck discovered the remains of a surprisingly modern-looking blast furnace, designed to utilize a forced draft induced by the incessant strong winds that swept over the surrounding desert.

The extremely large smelting pots and numerous copper and iron mines

discovered in the vicinity, attest to the fact that here, in Kenite territory, was the center of a very major metal-smelting industry. The profits derived from such a vast undertaking undoubtedly would have made the Kenite clan far more affluent than any Canaanite city-state.

As the wealth of the Kenites accumulated, their purchasing power would have enabled them to structure a formidable defense force, which in turn would tend to foster political alliances with neighboring tribes seeking protection from marauding bands of militant nomads.

Wealth also tends to foster cultural advances, hence the Bible informs us that Moses purportedly met his Kenite father-in-law priest in the Sinai wilderness. It was in the same locale that the eminent British archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie discovered fragments of clay texts, which bore a previously unknown form of writing. It was not until thirty years later, in 1948, that scholars were able to decipher the unique writing dating from 1500 B.C., which was revealed to be a dedication to the goddess Baalath, and was the forerunner of our present Western alphabet. Once again, we find a connection between the Kenites and the birth of the Israelite nation.

As more of the Northern tribes became affiliated with the Kenites, it would have become necessary to locate the administrative and religious capital of the new nation in a more northerly city, in order to establish a centralized bureaucracy for the collection of taxes and direction of religious rites. This would have been the logical rationale for the abandonment of the Arad Temple, and the construction of a new one at Jerusalem, during the Solomonic era. It must be remembered that the Judaism is not an unique religion, but rather one that has retained elements of earlier religions, such as the incorporation of the tree calendar, as evidenced in the use of pomegranate wood in the manufacture of sacrificial offering spits, and the association of the menorah with the almond tree. Moreover, the pomegranate was the only fruit permitted within the Holy-of-Holies of the Temple.

Shortly after Abraham arrived in Canaan, Egypt, for the first time in its long and glorious history, was conquered by foreigners. These were Syrian and Canaanite tribes collectively known as the Hyksos, who established an administrative center in the fertile Nile delta region, known in the Bible as the Land of Goshen. It is a matter of record that the Hyksos permitted starving Canaanites to settle in the Nile delta, whenever Canaan experienced a famine. We can therefore surmise that Proto-Israelite pastoralists migrated with their flocks to Egypt in periodic waves, and co-existed with the native populace. It is therefore possible that the biblical Joseph did, in fact, become Viceroy of Egypt, as the Bible claims, during the Hyksos dynasty. The only problem is that supposedly, he was the son-in-law of Potiphar, a high-ranking official. Unfortunately, the name "Potiphar" only came into use during the 10th. century B.C. In addition, Joseph's family allegedly rode camels, which were not domesticated at that early date.

On a positive note, however, an ancient Egyptian canal some 200 miles in length, transports water from the Nile to the fertile Faiyum region. where orchards are cloaked with a profusion of orange and peach blossoms in the springtime. Even today, the canal is known as "Bahr Yusef" (Joseph's canal}. Since the original Pentateuch (the "J" version) did not appear in written form until the l0th century B.C. at the earliest, the oral tradition of the Joseph story is in all probability; a composite of several events which span several centuries.

Two seemingly unrelated events occurred during the 15th century B.C.: the Hyksos' long reign over the Egyptians came to an end following a bloody revolt by the Egyptians, and the hill farmers of Canaan abandoned their land in droves. Biblical scholars have failed to provide a rational explanation for both events. The author believes that both events may have had a common causality: one thousand miles away, in the Aegian Sea, the island of Santorini exploded with a force many times greater than those which accompanied the eruptions of Krakatoa, or Mount St. Helens, in recent times. The Santorini disaster was precipitated by the explosive eruption, and subsequent collapse, of the island's volcano Thera, causing two thirds of Santorini to plunge into the gigantic crater.

The initial blast, of unimaginable intensity, rocked the island of Crete, followed shortly afterwards by the issuance of a stupendous cloud of pyroclastic ash, which engulfed the island to a depth of 100 feet, in some areas the cataclysmic event destroyed the island's Minoan civilization. As the island of Santorini collapsed into the gaping crater, the resultant tidal wave, some 100 feet in height, bore down on the coasts of Canaan and Egypt, inundating the Nile delta and depositing water-borne volcanic ash on the foothills of Canaan. The prevailing winds would have carried the sulfurous ash cloud over Canaan, creating major weather changes for several years, leaving a countryside beset with famine for several years. (21)

The disaster undoubtedly would have prompted a mass-migration of Canaanite hill farmers to the Land of Goshen, which would have been too far south to have been affected to any extent by the volcanic ash cloud. No doubt the tidal wave and resultant flooding would have severely disrupted the administrative and military capabilities of the Hyksos, thereby providing an opportunity for the Egyptians to rebel and overthrow their Hyksos overlords.

It is understandable why the Proto-Israelites would wish to settle in the fertile Land of Goshen and co-exist with the Egyptians, rather than return to the arid hill country of their native land. The co-existence appears to have proceeded harmoniously until the reign of Ramesses II (1301-1234 B.C.) whose penchant for grandiose construction projects prompted him to commit the unfortunate Israelites to forced labor. This was facilitated by the fact that most of the building sites were located in the Land of Goshen, where the Israelites grazed their herds.

We can surmise that some of the Israelites escaped servitude by fleeing to Canaan at the onset of the construction period (1290-1270 B.C.). If some of Abraham's relatives had, indeed, continued on to Egypt, instead of terminating their long trek from Haran to the Negev with Abraham, then the total length of the Israelites sojourn in Egypt would closely correspond to the time span indicated in the Bible (430 years). This timeline would only hold true, however, if Abraham's party began their journey at the destruction of Haran (circa 1700 B.C.) not two centuries earlier, as claimed by most scholars.

Obviously a mass escape from bondage by 600,000 Israelite men, plus their dependents and large herds of animals, would have been intercepted at the border by the Egyptians, who maintained an efficient network of border outposts. The notion that such a vast number of refugees could covertly assemble without detection, then escape the clutches of the Egyptians, is absurd, a fact now acknowledged by leading Judaic scholars.

Even if we ignore the logistical nightmare which would be generated in attempting to provide sustenance for such a large body of people, during their forty-year sojourn in the wilderness, we cannot overlook the fact that wherever large numbers of people congregate, garbage is deposited with the same degree of certitude as death and taxes. Despite extensive archaeological excavations in the wilderness regions of Israel, including major searches by Israelis, no artifacts older than the 10th century S.C. have ever been discovered in the region. Of the broken utensils and pottery, or the graves of hapless Israelites who perished prior to reaching the promised land, not a trace has been found, leaving biblical scholars to reluctantly conclude that the much-vaunted Exodus simply never occurred. This is of paramount importance geopolitically, for it negates the Jewish claim to Palestinian territory based solely upon divine right.

In all probability, the Exodus, if it ever happened at all, consisted of very small individual groups of runaway slaves, who fled eastward into Kenite territory, in order to avoid the vigilant Egyptian border patrols, instead of taking the more direct caravan route into the coastal region of Canaan, which was once more under Egyptian rule. Much has recently been made by Christian fundamentalists of the discovery of a sunken causeway, replete with Egyptian chariot wheels, thus proving that the biblical exodus really took place; unfortunately, the causeway appears to have sunk during the eruption of Thera, at a much earlier date than the purported exodus. Even the claim that King Ramesses kept slaves is based solely on the discovery of a stele which depicts a worker being whipped by an overseer.(22)

The biblical story of Moses is also highly suspect. A peculiar aspect associated with the great Middle-Eastern civilizers of antiquity, was that supposedly they were saved from a watery grave. Thus, Osiris was rescued from the river by his wife Isis, who was conveyed in a boat constructed of reeds. Similarly Sargon, the Semitic founder of the Akkadian dynasty (2360 B.C.) stated: "My mother conceived me and bore me in secret. She put me in a little box of reeds, sealing its lid with pitch. She put me in the river The river carried me away and brought me to Akki. Akki the drawer of water adopted me and brought me up as his son....

The Sargon myth is similar to the predicament in which the infant Moses found himself. According to Philo, Moses was named after the Egyptian word for water (mou); conversely, his name could also be derived from the Semitic root meaning "bring out".

In summation, the author is proposing that Indo-Aryan refugees, of high social status, whose original home was the city of Nahor, intermarried with Semitic Kenites and founded the Israelite nation. The copper-smelting technology and marketing expertise of the Kenites, in conjunction with local ore deposits, enabled the Proto-Israelites to establish themselves as the dominant copper producers in the Middle-East.

The resultant economic stability of the fledgling Israelites promulgated the peaceful assimilation of various other tribes of hill farmers and Shosu pastoralists. While existing Canaanite city-states feuded among themselves, and were periodically invaded by foreign invaders, the Israelites quietly developed their overseas markets. They probably exported a great deal of their iron and copper to Asia, via the port of Ezion-Geber (the biblical Eloth) situated on the shores of the Gulf of Aquaba.

In short, the Israelites were not the abominable psychopathic racists who attained a position of dominance by virtue of bloody conquest, as the Old Testament would have us believe, but instead, peaceably advanced toward nationhood by virtue of their superior manufacturing and marketing skills.

Doubtless such an hypothesis will generate unbridled fury among Judaic and Christian fundamentalists alike, who, through their ignorance, implicitly believe in biblical infallibility, but appear to glorify in the rape, pillage and genocide that was allegedly incited by the psychopathic Moses and Joshua. To such unevolved specimens of humanity, the author suggests that they attempt to expand their myopic vision, in addition to seeking psychiatric help.

The religion of the early Israelites does not appear to possess any unique characteristics; the Ten Commandments closely parallel the moral laws of ancient Egypt, where the Book of The Dead and the Teachings of Amenope counsel one not to covet the wife or property of a neighbor, nor to commit murder or ridicule little people. In keeping with the Israelites, the Athenians and the Egyptians considered themselves the Creator's chosen race.

We know very little regarding Judaism during its formative centuries, except that the Israelites embraced Goddess worship. We glean from II Maccabees that even as late as 162 B.C., Jewish soldiers wore magical amulets; the Bible also informs us that during the post Solomonic period, human sacrifices still occurred in Israel.

Mention of Goddess worship brings us to Solomon, who, according to the Bible, erected shrines throughout the land dedicated to the Goddess Ashtoreth. We are also told that the architectural design and construction of the Temple was directed by Hiram, who was loaned for the task by the goddess-worshipping king of Tyre. According to occult lore, Hiram was a member of a mystery school known as the Dionysian Artificers, who had established lodges throughout the Mediterranean countries. This mystery school was destined to found similar lodges in Europe at a later date, such as the Comacine Masters, even influencing the great Roman architect Vitrivius in the process.(23) A splinter group known as the Cassidens were active among the desert communities (Essenes, Zadokites etc.) during the 1st century A.D. It was such mystery schools, with their closely-held esoteric knowledge of sacred geometry, that eventually spawned the Frater Solomonis Mystery School, founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux and responsible for the design of the Gothic Cathedrals. The design of the gothic cathedrals incorporated not only conventional sacred geometry, but also magic squares, in order to make the cathedral interiors function as tuned resonant cavities.(24)

Unlike contemporary western religions, which embody the use of prayer, and also possess philosophical overtones, the religion of the Israelites was essentially a temple cult, primarily oriented toward the practice of the sacrificial rite, prayer being considered a superfluous element.

The plethora of goddess-oriented artifacts discovered throughout Israel, suggests that a strong matriarchal influence was extant among the populace, as the fledgling Israelites evolved toward nationhood - a concept clearly at variance with the patriarchal emphasis implied in the Pentateuch. In analyzing this apparent contradiction, we must take into consideration that the first five books of the Bible were not written until at least seven centuries after Abraham had entered Canaan. This is ample time for the oral transmission of Israelite history to have become distorted or, more likely, deliberately revised to falsely justify the necessity for the line of succession of the Israelite priesthood to remain permanently within the Levite tribe.

After the floodwaters of the global deluge had subsided somewhat, Yahwey informed Noah that the rainbow represented a covenant between Yahwey and the planet. Note that this covenant was not addressed to a specific ethnic group, but to: "...every living creature of all flesh." Yahwey later replaces the covenant with a new one addressed solely to Abraham and his descendants, in which Abraham is promised the land of Canaan forever (Genesis 17:8). At an even later date, Yahwey yet again revises the covenant, this time addressing it to Moses, who is instructed to lead the Israelites to the promised land.

Such a display of capriciousness forces one to conclude that in order to rigidly enforce their religious and administrative authority over the Jewish populace, the Levitical priesthood had to conceive and implement a deceptive ploy, which would persuade the Jews, after their release from their Babylonian captivity, to abandon their worship of various deities and offer exclusive allegiance to Yahwey. Hence the covenant myth, which significantly is explained in expanded form in Leviticus 26: 3-5: "If ye walk in my statutes and keep my commandments, and do them: Then I will give you rain in due season, and the land will yield her increase..." Needless to say, this covenant, which binds the nation in perpetuity, was composed of hollow words, for despite attempted adherence to the Mosaic Law, the Israelites suffered crop failures and oppression from foreign powers. In conceiving of a deceptive masterplan worthy of Machievelli, the Levitical priesthood were able to maintain their rapacious and repressive dominion over the god-fearing populace for many centuries. Like the contract between the Devil and Dr. Faustus, the Levitical covenant in its final form, permanently bound the Israelites to a vengeful deity.

How strange it is that Jews and Christians alike, subscribe to the existence of a Supreme Being, yet also implicitly believe that the Creator entered into an exclusive covenant with the Israelites - a body of people, who, according to the Bible, committed genocide on a massive scale, in addition to participating in the ritual sacrifice of juveniles.

Eventually, belief in the Mosaic covenant formed such a powerful mindset among the post-exhilic Jews, that the covenant myth became the cementitious constituent which, through the centuries, has prompted Jews from very diverse backgrounds to tenaciously adhere to their elected religion. It is a tragedy for humanity that belief in such a patently false theocratic dogma has generated what is, in all probability, the most enduring and important cultural construct in recorded history. It has resulted in a great deal of unnecessary bloodshed, particularly during this present century, and is inevitably destined to foment even greater mayhem in the near future, if the City of London crowd accomplish their objective of fomenting a nuclear holocaust in the Middle-East.(25)

The Old Testament exhibits a gradual, yet subtle shift toward thinly-disguised Mithraism - the patriarchal solar cult of the Indo-Aryans, becoming very blatant in the Books of the Prophets, such as Habakkuk 3:3-4, where "...his brightness was as the light." Originally androgynous when worshipped in India centuries prior to his adoption by the Persians, Mithra shed his feminine aspect and became the militaristic god of monarchs and warriors. This change occurred after Macedonia was conquered by Darius 1st, King of Persia (521-485 B.C.).

The Israelite functions of priests and temple attendants became the exclusive domain of the Levite clan, who were entrusted with these positions as a reward for their dedication in following the laws of the mythical Moses, according to the Bible. Paradoxically, Levitical followers of an Israelite named Korah rebelled against Moses! Something is clearly amiss with the biblical history of the Israelites, suggestive that it was tampered with, presumably to justify the Levites seizing control of the priesthood. Such a ploy would also enable them to manipulate the wealth of Israel, particularly since the Temple held the nation's treasury, and was also the national center of commerce, as well as its religious focal point.

In all probability, the Levites seized political as well as religious authority through aligning themselves with a foreign power, and subsequently revising Israelite history to favor their own self-aggrandizement. We must therefore search for a period in Israelite history which not only provided for such an opportunity, but was also an era which saw radical modifications to both religious and secular codes.

Such an opportunity arose in 587 B.C., when King Nebuchadnezzer conquered the towns and cities of Judah, destroying the Temple and deporting some of the populace to Babylon, where they remained for seventy years. Research has revealed that although the devastation of Judah was severe, some of the populace, including priests remained; a Jew named Gedaliah was appointed Governor of Judah by the Babylonians. This fact is of importance to our search, since the prophet Jeremiah and the remnants of the ruling class, joined Gedaliah in Mizpa, a city to the north of Jerusalem. The fact that Gedaliah was subsequently assassinated by a Jewish nationalist for his complicity with the Babylonians, suggests that Jeremiah and his priestly associates were quislings. Interestingly, Jeremiah 51 claims that Babylon " ...shall become a dwelling place for dragons...."

Levites returning to Judah after their long exhilic period, were in a unique position to establish a dictatorship. Gone forever was the monarchical era established earlier, and there was no centralized administration or written national history; the Persian monarch Cyrus, who had released them from their Babylonian captivity, even ordered them to rebuild the Temple.

Seizing their opportunity, the Levites apparently established a theocracy, introducing laws which incorporated religious and secular codes, which were based upon those of their Babylonian captors. Feastdays corresponded; thus Tisri of the Babylonians became the Feast of the Tabernacles, Nisan equated with the Passover, and Adar was similar to the Purim. Until the Babylonian captivity, angels formed no part of Israelite life; the angel myth had been created by Sumerian peasants after a mortal named Tas Mi-ki-gal became honored as dragon slayer and Lord of Agriculture.

With the passage of time, he was deified as Lord of the Air. To the superstitious Sumerians, this meant that he must have had feathered wings, in order to fly. And so began the myth of the person we know as Archangel Michael, whose agricultural genesis is celebrated by Christians with the Harvest Festival, held on Michaelmas Sunday. To the Sumerians, the lofty aloofness of their sun-god Ia provided the priesthood with the opportunity to appoint his powers on earth to his son Tas Mi-ki-gal, who became the overlord of a host of angels. Phoenician coins depict the winged figure and the name "Mikalu", while a Hittite seal illustrates a man under attack by a dragon appealing to the archangel for help. In this manner, the angelology of the Babylonians was eventually incorporated into the Jewish religion in the post-exhilic years; the Jews also inherited the insidious Babylonian practice of usury.

The Jewish Sabbath became as strict and repressive as that of Babylon, and possessed similar prohibitions regarding cooking or the lighting of fires on the Sabbath. Another adoption was the establishment of places of worship that were subservient to a central Temple authority; the rapacious Levites even authorized themselves to mint the coin of the realm! With the approval of their Persian overlords, the Levitical priesthood (descendants of Aaron) established their own repressive version of the Israelite religion as the law of the land, and the High Priest of the Temple became ruler of all Israel.

Reconstruction of the Temple and establishment of the new theocracy, occurred during the reign of King Darius 1st of Persia, the ruler who apparently expunged all traces of the feminine aspects of the deity Mithra, who, the legend states, was the intermediary between the Creator and humankind, and was discovered as a baby by herdsmen, who had been guided by a star (the solar crown on the Statue of Liberty is the crown of Mithra, the solar deity). Egyptian and Judean texts demonstrate that the Persian monarch played an active role in overseeing the religious activities of his satrapies.

It was the custom of conquering monarchs to introduce the attributes of their deity Mithra, to the defeated nation, by attaching them to a local god, in order to avoid incurring the wrath of the populace. Another ploy sometimes adopted by an invading monarch was an earnest plea to the gods of a city under siege, to transfer their allegiance to the side of the invaders. To prevent such a ploy being used against them, a defensive measure utilized by the Romans was the assigning of the name Appollo to Mithra, the god of their military forces.

In view of the above, it is quite possible that an understanding was reached between the wily Levite clan and King Darius 1st, whereby the unscrupulous Levites were installed as rulers of Israel, in perpetuity, in return for assigning the attributes of Mithra to Yahwey. In effect, Yahwey, the god of the Kenites, was covertly displaced by the militaristic deity Mithra, only the god's name remaining unaltered.

It is remarkable how quickly that new generations of Chinese, growing up under the yoke of communist indoctrination, abandoned the religious beliefs and ancestor worship of their elders. Similarly, the new generation of Jews, who grew up so influenced by Babylonian culture that they even forgot their native tongue, would have lacked the ability to discern that the religion and history of their people being promulgated by the Levites, radically differed from that previously taught by the pre-exhilic priesthood. The immediate post-exhilic period was accordingly very opportune for the wily Levites to introduce a new, self-aggrandizing code of religious and secular laws, without arousing undue suspicion, particularly if the new religion bore the approval of King Darius.

The coastal peninsula, some twelve kilometers north of the city of Tunis, is a prestigious residential area. Even the official residence of the President of Tunisia is located there. Unfortunately, the growing urban expansion has posed a major threat to the archaeological remains of what was one of the great maritime trading centers of the ancient world - the city of Carthage.

Founded in the eighth century B.C., as a Phoenician outpost and colony of the city of Tyre, Carthage possessed two large artificial harbors, replete with covered berths for commercial and naval ships. From this city, the stately Phoenician triremes plied their trade over far greater oceanic distances than Establishment archaeologists would have us believe. A hoard of Carthaginian coins was discovered by Portuguese sailors during the 18th century in the Azores, some 800 miles off the European coast.

Dr Mark McMenamin, a professor of geology at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, became interested in this event, which induced him to conduct a study of Carthaginian currency. He discovered that Phoenician gold coinage bore minute markings corresponding to the outlines of several geographic regions, including South America. The professor's findings are supportive of bronze figurines which were discovered in 1641 by Jesuit priests residing near Minas Gerais, in Brazil. Inscriptions on the figurines have been identified by Vatican scholars as Phoenician; the coins and figurines strongly suggest that the seafaring Phoenicians had established widespread trading relationships during the biblical era. Additional evidence that the Phoenicians had visited South America as trans-oceanic traders, not as shipwrecked mariners, is provided by a stone discovered in Brazil more than. a century ago. Authenticated by Brandeis University scholar, Cyrus Gordon, the stone, which is known as the Parahyba Text, bears a Phoenician inscription describing a voyage by Phoenician merchants, who had departed from the Mediterranean port of Sidon during the 6th century B.C..(26)

At the same time that the city of Carthage was being built during the 8th century B.C., the Spanish coastal city of Tarshish prospered, as metallic ore mined by the Basque natives was traded to Phoenicians who had settled in the region; the local language, known as Tartessian, was a dialectical variant of Phoenician.(27)

Unlike the flimsy coastal-hugging craft that plied the Mediterranean during the biblical era, the ships of Tarshish, with their graceful swan-like bows and leather sails, were large ocean-going vessels. Moreover, the Basque seafarers of Tarshish possessed exceptional navigational skills, which had evolved from their employment of a base seven mathematical system, similar to that of the Irish Celts. The Basques, noted for their octagonal fields and incredibly difficult language, never have been given due credit for their major contribution to navigation and cartography (Juan de la Cosa Vizcaino was the Basque owner/navigator of Christopher Columbus' flagship, the Santa Maria, and also served as pilot on the epic voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and Vasco de Balboa).

This digression from our narrative was necessary because it is interesting to conjecture the fate of the Kenite metal workers, after their local supply of ore had run out. Ezekial reported that the merchants of Tarshish brought silver, tin, iron and lead to the city of Tyre for trade. In all probability, much of the imported metal was acquired by Kenite metalsmiths. in exchange for copper from the Kenite foundries. Is it possible that the Kenites found a new ore supply after their own mines were exhausted? Could it have been smelted into copper in America by Kenites, then exported to Israel by means of Phoenician ships?

Curiously, 5000 ancient copper mines have been discovered on Michigan's Isle Royale; in total, some 500,000 tons of copper were smelted from Michigan ore in ancient times, yet the relatively small number of copper artifacts recovered from Native American burial mounds does not account for the prodigious volume of ore that was extracted from the Michigan mines. Curiously, some Indian gravesites were found to contain copper sheets formed into the shape of animal hides.

It was a common practice among European and Mediterranean bronze age cultures to shape their copper ingots into a configuration similar to that of an animal hide, the four leg-like protrusions serving as convenient handles for lifting purposes. It is possible that the artifacts found in the Indian graves were beaten from native copper (which does not require smelting) by Indians who were influenced by the shape of the smelted ingots, in the belief that the latter possessed magical properties. Since the amount of North American copper ore which was mined in Biblical times does not tally with the quantity of copper artifacts unearthed in America, one is compelled to wonder whether any imported ore or copper found its way into the hands of Kenite craftspeople.(28)

Ignoring the vast discrepancy between the total weight of copper ore mined in Michigan, and the small number of artifacts discovered on American soil, the archaeological establishment claims that the gigantic American mining effort was solely the work of a North American copper culture! Sadly, mainstream archaeologists also have elected to dismiss the abundant epigraphic evidence which very strongly suggests that the Phoenician merchants of Tarshish had established trading stations in North America more than two milleniums ago. Abundant epigraphic evidence in the form of inscribed stones, and structures bearing inscriptions in Tartessian and Oggam, have been discovered at New England sites.

A credible find occurred in 1982, when Russell Burrows discovered an ancient funerary cave in Southern Illinois. In addition to jewels and gold medallions, The funerary artifacts also included several thousand stone tablets bearing inscriptions in Tifinag, Phoenician and Oggam, and symbols denoting Bel and Tanith. Of particular note were engravings of men wearing Phoenician-style hats, an Egyptian cartouche and a Jewish menorah. In view of the above, it is quite possible that the Kenite metal workers used American copper after their own mines became depleted.

In completing our quest for the true origins of the Israelite nation, we cannot ignore one important facet of the puzzle, for it has a direct bearing upon the belief structure of many Christian fundamentalists.

These fundamentalists have adopted the so-called British Israelite hypothesis, which claims that the Danite princess Tea Tephi, together with her retinue, settled in Ireland circa 1250 B.C.. Some Danites, in addition to the other tribes who had comprised the Northern kingdom of Israel, after the division of the nation, were taken into captivity by the Assyrians circa 740-721 B.C., and were relocated in the Caucases region. where they became known, thereafter, as "Caucasians", according to the fundamentalists.

They claim that the tribe of Dan subsequently migrated to Western Europe. Therefore, according to the convoluted reasoning of the fundamentalists, the Anglo-Saxons and people of Germanic stock are God's chosen race, a reward for disseminating Christianity throughout the world.

In consequence of this belief structure, a great deal of anti-Jewish hate literature has been published by various Christian Fundamentalists groups. Since it is hoped that this article will contribute toward interracial understanding and harmony, such a claim by the Christian fundamentalists cannot go unchallenged.

Recent archaeological excavations among the ruins of former Canaanite coastal cities, have revealed ceramic containers from the Philistine era (12th. century B.C.). These containers, which differ from earlier Canaanite vessels, possessed very thick walls in order to withstand the rigors of maritime travel. They were discovered in the Levantine area known to have been occupied by the Danites; similar vessels were also found in Cyprus and at Tel Dan, an inland Danite stronghold of the Galilee region, described in the Bible as Sidonian (Phoenician) territory.

According to Genesis 49: 16-17, the Danites, lacking a known geneology, were not related to the early Israelites. In other words, the Danites were presumably members of the Sea Peoples group known as the Danuna or Denyen to the Egyptians, who initially settled in Canaan circa 1175, according to the Egyptian wall relief at Medinet Habu, and were, in alt probability, related to the Greek Sikeloi. There is a strong possibility that that the Danites were Greeks who had participated in the Trojan war, and served as role models for the Greek epics Goliath and Samson. Regrettably, space does not permit development of this hypothesis, attractive though it is. Additionally, we must not overlook the biblical statement that the Danites: "... dwell on ships" (Judges 5: 17) whereas the Israelites were not a seafaring race.

British Israelism was concocted in the 19th century by the British Crown and members of its government, in order to falsely claim that the British are really God's chosen people. This ideology was reinforced in 1901, when an American freemason and British Israelism afficionado, the Reverend Charles Parham created the Pentecostal Movement. Parham later lost his ministry after being charged with pederasty and became a speaker for the Ku Klux Klan.

Observing the successful spread of Pentecostalism among the American black population, the British introduced Pentecostalism to South Africa's militant Zulu nation, as a pacification measure, in 1908. Throughout recorded history, the oligarchy has employed state-regulated religions as a ploy to maintain a form of mind-control over the populace, as evidenced by the Cult of Apollo in Greece, and King Henry VIII appointing himself Pontifex Maximus, in order to regulate the religious belief structure of the English.

At the present time, the City of London crowd and British Intelligence are using Christian Fundamentalism and the charismatic cults as a means to exert control over both the United States military and the Patriot Movement. Several leading Pentecostalists are former high-level military officers, such as General Ralph E. Haines, the former architect of "Operation Garden Plot", intended for the military take-over of every American city if a state of national emergency is declared, and General Benton Partin, a founder of the Front Line Fellowship, a charismatic organization active in Africa, whose participants include former South African commandos. Partin has allegedly received intelligence reports from a British Israel geopolitician.(29)

Another fundamentalist organization under oligarchical control is the International Christian Leadership, created in order to exert influence over key members of society, by Colonel Sir Vivian Gabriel, a former British Air Commission attache in Washington. During the 1950's, the organization's major sponsor was former Nazi S.S. officer Prince Bernhard at the time he was founding the Bilderberg Group. According to one American newspaper, Televangelist and Christian Fundamentalist Pat Robertson visited Zaire at the request of then President George Bush, in order to persuade the Zaire government to transfer alt that nation's mining interests to foreign ownership. British mining companies subsequently funded the bloody coup led by the despotic Lauren Kabila, which resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Africans. After the coup, Robertson invited the dictator to be his guest in America.(30)

The Christian Fundamentalist movement, with its emphasis on British Israelism, is particularly dangerous at the present time, since fundamentalist extremists are urging the destruction of Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock, the third holiest Islamic location, and the reconstruction of the Jewish Temple on the site, in order to precipitate Armageddon.

Mother insidious British Israelite activity in recent years has been the publication of books erroneously claiming that Mary Magdalene and her purported sister Martha were both brides of Christ. Mary fled Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and settled in France, where Mary's offspring allegedly married into the Frankish royal family, which later spawned the Merovingian bloodline.

This nonsensical tale appears to be a ploy to convince the public that the principal European royal families are direct descendants of the biblical House of David, and appears to be an attempt to legitimize the European Oligarchy as overlords of the proposed New World Order religion.

This charade began with the publication in France of a book of thirteen poems entitled Le Serpent Rouge, in which Mary Magdalene possessed "a celebrated vase". All we know of Mary Magdalene from the Bible is that Christ purportedly cast seven devils out of her (Magdala was an ancient occult center). We are not informed whether or not he married her, or whether Martha was her sister.

The myth is extremely flawed. The direct Merovingian bloodline began with Merovee, who died in 458 A.D., and was succeeded by his son Childeric, whose tomb contained 300 gold bees. The Merovingians claimed descent from the Trojans of Greece, not from the Jewish Davidic bloodline.

This claim is almost certainly correct, for according to Homer's Iliad, the Greek city of Troy was named in honor of Tros, whose father Dardanus, founded the city. His name suggests that he could have been of Danite descent. The Greek deity Zeus was depicted both as an eagle and also as a serpent, to which offerings of honey were made, possibly a connection with the Merovingian gold bees. Zeus was claimed to have been born in Arcadia, a name of esoteric importance to the Priory of Sion.

Arcadia was in the region known as Sparta. It is known that some Spartans migrated initially to Troy, then later to southern France, before settling in the French province of Lorraine (the domicile of the current head of the Illuminati). In the apocryphal book 1 Maccabees, a letter from Areus, king of Sparta, to the Jewish High Priest, states that the Spartans are "of the race of Abraham." As we have seen, Abraham was most certainly an Indo-Aryan Horite, not a Semite. The letter ended by stating that the King's symbol was an eagle holding a dragon in its claws. This is very interesting because the Danites flew a red and white standard bearing an eagle, and like the Spartans, grew their hair long. As was previously stated, the Danites were not related to the ancient Israelites; they also, in keeping with the Greeks, made offerings of honey, possibly denoting a tradition later symbolized by the Merovingian gold bees.

According to Josephus, the Danites migrated to Lebanon, where they remained for 600 years before disappearing from recorded history. What the above investigation appears to reveal, however, is that the oligarchical bloodlines of Europe are not descended from the House of David (even the biblical story of David appears to be apocryphal) but from Indo-Aryan Danites. This would account for the long hair of Merovee; it also provides an explanation for the Habsburg adoption of the eagle symbol and the gold bees. One author promoting this fallacious attempt to link the European bloodline with the House of David also appears to be an apologist for the consumption of menstrual blood, a revolting custom still performed by members of the Illuminati hierarchy, according to more than one observer of this habit. This author also displays a penchant for griping that the House of Windsor usurped the rightful claim to the British Crown, which thankfully suggests that there is disharmony within the Illuminati ranks.

Fortunately for humanity, even the Christian Fundamentalists have rejected the claims of such books, which present an indigestible stew consisting of a few nuggets of truth immersed in misinformation and pabulum. Only the more ill-informed and gullible members of the New Age community have swallowed this concoction.

Over the centuries, the wrath of Christians has been directed toward the Jews, not only for their refusal to accept Christ, but also for the Jewish bigoted claim that they are God's chosen people, a claim based upon it being a reward for the Israelite adherence to the Mosaic Law. Such a claim is, of course, utter nonsense, since, according to the Bible, the Israelites under Moses and Joshua, broke most of the Ten Commandments during their alleged destruction of the Canaanite cities, during the conquest period.

Established beliefs die hard, but it is hoped that the next generation of Jews will avoid the intolerant and hateful attitude of the radical Gush Emunim Jewish Fundamentalists, and instead adopt an enlightened attitude and realize that Israel is not theirs by divine right, and learn to co-exist with their Arab neighbors. The Old Testament is both a very flawed religious and secular history of the Israelites; the author accordingly hopes that the factual data presented in this article will assist in generating a paradigm shift in the mind-set of younger Jews, toward a more accurate understanding of Israelite history.

In these times of growing anti-Semitism, it is well to remember that Judaism, despite its false dogma, has afforded a sterling service by providing a focus for Jews during times of persecution, thereby maintaining cohesion among individual Jewish family units.

In concluding this article on a positive note, it appears to be a fortuitous characteristic of human nature that most people strive to make spiritual growth during their lifetime. What finer role model could we find for this task, than a person whose first name simply means "Judahite". He is the late Sir Yehudi Menuhin; this consumate European violinist and gentle human being, not only provided the world with decades of wonderful music, but had selflessly given countless hours of his spare time to perform at fundraising benefits for the preservation and restoration of those most audacious of structures - the Gothic cathedrals. It is no exaggeration to state that without the selfless efforts of this fine humanitarian, many of our Gothic edifices would, in all probability, be in ruins today.

NOTES & REFERENCES

1.It was forbidden for scrolls containing sacred passages to be discarded. Instead, one end of each scroll had to be either slashed with a knife or passed through a flame, prior to insertion in a clay jar. The jars were then assigned to a geniza - a sacred garbage dump Jews too poor to give offerings of animals or doves to the Temple, were permitted to provide offerings of dates. After the dates had been consumed by the priests, the date pits were deemed sacred and also had to be consigned to a geniza. Hence the presence of broken jars and date pits in Qumran cave four. Many of the scrolls were polemics against the Pharisees, which would account for their consignment to a geniza, after the Pharisees acquired control of the priesthood.

The linen garments worn by the Essenes were impregnated with frankincense. This caused a layer of calcium carbonate to form on the bottom of pools used for laundry purposes. Although not present at Qumran, calcium carbonate deposits were discovered in pools at the Ain Feshka oasis, some three miles south of Qumran, together with ruined structures dating from the Herodian period. This would have been the obvious location for an Essene commune, due to a copious flow of spring water suitable for ritual bathing and the growing of crops, not at arid Qumran.

2. Data sources for the book manuscript include ethnomusicology, mythology, astroarchaeology, present and former political assassins and disillusioned intelligence, military and Illuminati sources. Information was also provided by members of black-budget research organizations engaged in formal astral travel and remote viewing experiments.

3. There are two Talmuds - the Babylonian and the Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Talmud is less extensive than the Babylonian version, and was compiled circa 400 AD. at academies in Ceasaria, Sepphoris and Tiberias. The Babylonian Talmud was written a century later in Babylon by priests displaying a penchant for pedophilia. They condoned the rape of young infant girls and the sodomizing of boys, in addition to approving monetary contributions to the Temple for: "Money given to a man by a harlot to associate with his dog." Sadly, as a result of a decree by Rabbi Hal Gaon, who died 1038 A.D., the Babylonian Talmud takes precedence over the Jerusalem version, wherever the two are in conflict.

4. According to Sumerian clay texts, the Anannage descended Mount Hermon and established a habitat at Kharsag, prior to migrating to the Mesopotamian region.

In all probability, they were technologically-advanced human survivors of the Noahic flood, not extraterrestrials. It should be noted that the Babylonians, who later adopted and modified the Sumerian language, had a penchant for deifying ancient human persons. Accordingly, the Anannage (referred to in the bible as Nephilim) were probably humans, not extraterrestrials.

5 Genesis 24:1-10.

6. Genesis 16:2.

7. Genesis 30:3.

8. Genesis 31:3.

9. Genesis 24:1-10.

10. Genesis l2:5.

11. Genesis 23:1.

12. Rainey, A, Biblical Archaeological Review, Vol. XVII, No.6, 1991.

13. Finkelstein, A, & Ease, D, Ibid., September, 1988.

14. Numbers 3l:8.

15. Judges 8:24.

16. Exodus 2:17 and Genesis 37:28-36, respectively.

17. Genesis 25: 2-6.

18. 1 Chronicles 4:12-14.

19. Samuel 1:27.

20. Exodus 27:1.

21. Volcanic ash from the Thera eruption has been discovered in the Negev hill-country.

22. According to the Harris Papyrus, two percent of the Egyptian population became temple slaves, but at a date later than that of the purported Exodus period.

23. Hypolyte, C, The Dionysia Articifers, London, 1820.

24. St. Bernard of Clairvaux was the financial driving force behind the creation of the Templars. Bernard had a lifelong fascination with the Black Madonna cult created by the corrupt Babylonian priesthood. in deification of Queen Semiramis. The personal icon of the present Pope is the Black Madonna.

25. We must not make the mistake of assuming that the Mosaic Covenant, with its inherent ethos of racial purity, resulted in major strife solely between the Jews and adversary nations, for two other societal groups of the present era have embroiled themselves in political turmoil and bloodshed in consequence of establishing cultural identities based upon a mythical covenant with God: the Boers of South Africa, and the Protestant populace of Northern Ireland.

So strong was the belief of the Boors that they were specifically selected by God to form a nation which excluded non-covenantal people (black Africans) that they named their holiest day, the "Day of the Covenant."

In the 16th. century, Scottish Presbyterians composed a religious covenant based upon its Mosaic predecessor; in 1912, the majority of the male population of Northern Ireland - Protestants of Scottish descent, signed a revised version of the Presbyterian covenant entitled "Ulster's Solemn League and Covenant", which proved to be the catalyst for the creation of the Northern Ireland government.

Even though the nations of Israel, South Africa and Northern Ireland claim to have democratic forms of government, non-covenantal minorities will never experience equal rights within the confines of their respective national borders, until the insidious covenantal mindset is eradicated.

What we have are three contemporary nations, who, in their relatively brief existence, have incurred much needless bloodshed through their having adopted cultural identities derived from the fraudulent Mosaic Covenant, with its markedly racist and supremacist overtones.

Tragically, as we have observed, the Old Testament covenants were dearly false dogmas, which were composed and promulgated by the corrupt Levitical priesthood in order to benefit their self-aggrandizement.

Attempting to change the mindset of covenantal societies by means of applied external pressures is ineffective, since they believe that it is their divine task to protect their religious ideologies from the profane. Accordingly, external pressures merely serve to reinforce the group solidarity of covenantal peoples Oddly enough, Jewish interest in the covenant of their ancestors had waned dramatically by the 19th century of the present era, despite the urgings of Napoleon in 1799 for the Jews to return to their biblical homeland. Even though a few Sephardic Jews settled in Palestine during the 18th century, the majority of European Jews, being of Khazar ancestry, remained disinterested in acquiring sovereignty over Palestine despite the creation of the World Zionist Organization by British asset Theodor Hertzal in 1897.

One would imagine that the founder of a Jewish Nationalist organization would be well-versed in Jewish religious tradition, and zealous for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, yet this was not the case. Amazingly, this atheistic Viennese dilettante, who contracted a social disease and displayed a pederastic propensity toward pre-pubescent girls, had little knowledge of Judaism, and was unable to speak Hebrew or Yiddish.

Despite Hertzl's lack of influence among the Jewish intelligencia, his appeal for the creation of a Jewish state located in a sparsely populated region of the world, attracted the attention of the poorly-educated Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe, who were experiencing a wave of anti-Semitism, and in consequence, were becoming increasingly dispossessed.

Various locations for the homeland were considered, the principal ones being Uganda and Argentina, not Palestine. At the sixth Zionist Congress, Hertzl and a majority of delegates voted in favor of Uganda becoming the preferred Jewish homeland. This idea was soon abandoned when it was discovered that the choicest Ugandan farmland was already occupied by British settlers.

The eventual impetus for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine came in World War I, not from Orthodox Jews, who regarded Zionism as heresy and were content to remain in their present domicile, and patiently await the return of their Messiah, but from two British groups: the Protestants, who believed that a Jewish colonization of Palestine would expedite Armageddon and hence accelerate the return of Christ (it is interesting to conjecture the outcome if both Messiahs arrived simultaneously) and the Circle of Initiates. The Circle of Initiates was an Illuminati geopolitical think-tank founded by Cecil Rhodes.

26. Thompson, G., American Discovery Our Multi-Cultural Heritage, Misty Isles Press, 1994.

27. Fell, B, America B.C., Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y., 1993.

28. Ancient American, Sept./ Oct. 1993.

29. Chaitkin, A, Executive Intelligence Review, August, 1999

30. Richmond Times Dispatch, February 1st, 1997.

 

Close Window